Books Concerning the History of Hypnotism (and works pre-1933)
Gauld, Alan: A History of Hypnotism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2010.
Rnstro M., Fredrik Johan/ Posse, Baron Nils: Hypnotism Its History and Present Development. Norderstedt: Books on Demand 2013.
CRABTREE,ADAM: „From Mesmer to Freud – Magnetic Sleep and the Roots of Psychological Healing“
Hardbound wDJ, 1992, 413 pp
Hands down, this is one of the best books on the history of hypnotism around. Beginning with Mesmer, and concluding with the early work of Pierre Janet and Sigmund Freud, this book meticulously documents the trail of inquiry into psychological healing, hypnotic consciousness, mind/body dualities, and dual personality.
WINTER, ALLISON: „Mesmerized : Powers of Mind in Victorian Britain“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1998, 464 pp
One of the best books published recently on the history of hypnotism. Professor Winter of Cal Tech is unfailing in her research, and impressive in her analysis. The book follows the course of hypnotism from the public halls of Victorian England to the universities, with a lively exploration on the contested territory between science and pseudo- science. Highly recommended!
DINGWALL, ERIC J. [ED]: „Abnormal Hypnotic Phenomena – A Survey of Nineteenth-Century Cases Vol IV. Hypnotism in the United States and Great Britain.
Hardbound w/DJ, 1968, 174 pp
One of the most uncommon titles you can add to your collection, this book concentrates on areas of study which have been largely
ignored in the literature. Dingwall unearths the almost unknown and forgotten activites of the
mesmerists of the nineteenth century while concentrating on the paranormal aspects of their work.
BLOCH (tr): „Mesmerism „
Hardbound w/DJ, 1980, 152 pp
A translation of the original scientific and medical writings of Franz Anton Mesmer. The origins of animal magnetism directly from the source. An invaluable primary reference book.
THORNTON,E.M. : „Hypnotism, Hysteria, and Epilepsy : an historical synthesis“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1976, 204 pp, uncommon
One of the most original pieces of academic investigation in the field, which comes to a most unusual conclusion : that the hypnotic trance is a form of epilepsy only recognized in resent times and unknown when Mesmer was making his first experiments.
DURANT,C.F. : ‚Exposition or a New Theory of Animal Magnetism“
Hardbound, 1981 reprint of an 1837 book, 225 pp
Durant, one of America’s early aeronauts and the first native American to make a baloon flight in the United States, was also a printer, a lithographer, and a collector of seaweed and coral. This book is one of the first three early works published in the Unted States on Animal Magnetism. Dedicated to the president of Brown University,m the book covers the origin and hisotry of animal magnetism, as well as a series of interesting experiments on the subject.
BERNHEIM,H.: „Hypnotism and Suggestion in Psychotherapy“
Hardbound w/dj , later printing
$39.50 – hardbound lacking dust jacket
Originally published as „Suggestive Therapeutics“. The father of modern hypnotism, reading Bernheim is an eye- opening experience. Hundreds of case studies from the 19th century, as well as techniques, theories, and the primary source of the idea of hypnotism as enhanced suggestion.
ESDAILE,JAMES: „Hypnosis in Medicine and Surgery (‚Mesmerism in India‘)“
Hardbound, 1902 reprint of a circa 1850 book
$45.00 – a modern hardbound reprint from India
One of the true classics in the field, in which Esdaile document his personal use of hypnotism as anesthesia for surgery in the 1840’s. From the days before there was chemical anesthesia, Esdaile was a surgeon who used mesmerism successfully in dozens of cases, and his meticulous notes stand as a monument to the power of the hypnotic state.
DELEUZE,J.P.F. : „Practical Instruction in Animal Magnetism“
Hardbound, 1890, 524 pp
Perhaps the purest route to Puysegur and the school of sonambulistic hypnotism. Originally published in 1825, this was one of the most popular manuals for the practice of animal magnetism ever written, and it stayed in print throughout the 19th century. Deleuze was a highly respected scholar who became an assistant naturalist of the Garden of Plants in Paris. He also wrote one of the first histories of animal magnetism. Some scholars trace the origins of post-hypnotic suggestion to Deleuze.
MUNRO, HENRY M.D.: Handbook of Suggestive Therapeutics & Applied Hypnotism“
Hardbound, 1913, 3rd revised edition, 409pp (other editions available)
One of the few American books of the turn of the century to deal in depth with the use of hypnotism in a clinical setting, derived from his work at the Mayo Clinic. . Covers how to hypnotise, laws of suggestion, therapeutic applications of hypnotism. Uncommon.
WETTERSTRAND,OTTO GEORG: ;Hypnotism and its Application to Practical Medicine“
Hardbound, 1902, 166 pp
First published in 1896, this volume from the fashionable Swedish Physician who built a phenomenally successful practice in Stockholm at the turn of the century. His method involved inducing periods of prolonged hypnotic sleep, often from 8-12 days! This book presents his myriad case histories.
BERNHEIM,H.: „Suggestive Therapeutics“
Leatherbound w/Gold Leaf, 1992, (1889)
The father of modern hypnotism, reading Bernheim is an eye-opening experience. Hundreds of case studies from the 19th century, as well as techniques, theories, and the primary source of the idea of hypnotism as enhanced suggestion. An exceptional collector’s edition in fine condition.
NEAL,E. VIRGIL & S. CLARK,CHARLES: „Hypnotism and Hypnotic Suggestion“
Hardbound, 1900, 259 pp
$25.00 – a spiral bound facsimile
Published at the turn of the last century, this anthology brings together articles from 30 authors, including the well- known Americans Carl Sextus and Thomas Jay Hudson, as well as professors from the Universities of Michigan, Pennsylvania, Berlin, Columbia, California, Harvard, Princeton, West Virginia, Dartmouth, Temple, Bryn Mawr, Ohio State, Toronto, Stanford, NYU and more. A solid academic look at the state-of-the-art 30 years BEFORE the landmark work of Clark Hull.
PLATONOV, K. : „The Word as a Physiological and Therapeutic Factor“
Hardbound w/DJ, sl dampstain1959, 451 pp.
$65.00 – hardbound copy lacking a dj, dampstaining
This hard-to-find book was first published in Russia in 1930, later revised in 1955 and finally translated and published in English by the Foreigh Languages Publishing House in Moscow. It details the author’s experimental and clinical work with hypnosis under Pavlov. They measured physical responses to suggestions, and the book contains various Soviet methods of suggestion, induction, hypnosis, and psychotherapy. A treasure! Only 1,000 copies were printed.
CANNON,ALEXANDER: „The Science of Hypnotism“
Hardbound w/dust jacket, 1959 , 126 pp
From the author of Powers That Be comes this excellent book which reveals the secrets and techniques of the best hypnotists at the turn of the century – Bernheim, Binet and Fere, Liebault, Tuckey, Charcot and others..
MESMER,FRANZ ANTON: „Mesmerism – The Discovery of Animal Magnetism“
Pamphlet, 1998, 28 pp
A new translation by Joseph Bouleur of Mesmer’s famous work on the origins of hypnotism. Mesmer covers his days in Vienna through his arrival in Paris, the discovery of animal magnetism, and his 27 ‚philosophical assertions‘. A fascinating historical document.
BJORNSTROM,FREDRIK M.D: „Hypnotism: Its History and Present Development“
Hardbound, 1887, 124 pp
Increasingly uncommon, this book was translated from the Second Swedish edition of this overview from the head physician of the Stockholm Holpital and Professor of Psychiatry. Filled with references to European practices, persons, and anectdotes which cannot be found in most books in English. A precious resource.
TUCKEY,C. LLOYD M.D.: „Psycho-Therapeutics – Treatment by sleep and suggestion“
Hardbound, 1889, 80 pp
The First Edition of a book that went through five printings, from the Bernheim of Great Britain. Tuckey studied with Liebeault in Nancy, and brought his methods back to London where he practiced at the turn of the Century. A classic figure from 100 years ago.
POULIN,JOSEPH R. : „Pauline in Cataplepsy and Psycho Therapeutics“
Hardbound, 1915, 78 pp
This early hypnotist from upstate New York performed on the stage as Pauline. In this book he lays out his own theories on suggestion in hypnotism and in everyday life. Illustrated with a plethora of photos, Pauline shows how to induce the deepest levels of catalepsy and hypnotic trance, including his own methods of blood control.
HART,ERNEST: „Hypnotism, Mesmerism, & Witchcraft“
Trade Paperback, 1980 (1893) 212 pp
This reprint of the classic work, including classic Victorian photographs, is a marvelous contemporaneous book from the time of Charcot, Bernheim, Luys, Binet, Fere and others. A fascinating read.
PITZER,GEO. C. M.D.: „Therapeutic Suggestion in the Cure of Diseases and the Correction of Habits“
Spiral Bound, circa 1896, 22 pp
A facsimile reproduction of a pamphlet by the Los Angeles doctor who taught and practices hypnotic suggestion at the turn of the century. He taught at the St. Louis School of Suggestive Therapeutics, and also offered a mail order course.
MOLL,ALBERT: „The Study of Hypnosis“
Hardbound , 1897
Hardbound w/DJ, reprint
Originally written in 1889, this book has been in and out of print for over 100 years! A classic primary source, Moll’s book covers the state of the art of hypnotic practice at the turn of the century, including history, technique, and application. If you are interested in the history of hypnotism, this book is a classic.
ELLENBERGER, HENRI: ‚The Discovery of the Unconscious – the History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry“
Trade Paperback, 1970, 932 pp
A massive work which stands the test of time as one of the great histories to tackle the lineage from Mesmer through Janet and Freud. One of the most highly regarded reference works in the field.
COUE,EMILE : „Self Mastery Through Conscious Autosuggestion“
Trade paperback, 1967, 92 pp
Coue was the natural end of the line originated when Bernheim asscribed the effects of hypnotism to ’suggestion‘. This called into doubt the entire issue of the hypnotic state. Today that point of view can be found in persons as different as Kreskin and Ted Sarbin.
BADOUIN,CHARLES: „Suggestion and Autosuggestion“
Hardbound, 1922, 288 pp.
Badouin studied under Coue at the New Nancy school, and was probably his best representative. This school promoted the use of suggestion without hypnotic trance, in the same location where Bernheim and Liebault held court 40 years earlier.
BACON,AXEL WAYNE : „Hypnotism:Course of 17 Practical Self-Study Lessons on Hypnotic Power“
Hardbound, 1945 – 265 pp
Another rewrite of the Young book on Hypnotism, circa 1899. Especially strong in historical references to Liebault, Nancy, Luys, Charcot, Tuckey, Bernheim, and the other masters of the day.
MARKS, ROBERT: „The Story of Hypnotism“
Hardbound, 1947, 246 pp, ex-library copy
A popular version of the history of hypnotism, written just as hypnotherapy was enjoying a comeback due to Watkins Hull, and Wolberg, et al. Very strong sections on Mesmer, Freud, Charcot, Bernheim, faith healing and mass hysteria.
WYCKOFF,JAMES: „Franz Anton Mesmer – Between God and Devil“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1975, 148 pp.
A short and easy to read bio of Mesmer. The book concentrates on Mesmer’s relevance to modern medicine and hypnotism. a provocative look at the evolution of the psycholanalytic approach. Very nice section of illustratons.
BURANELLI,VINCENT: „The Wizard From Vienna – Franz Anton Mesmer“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1975, 256 pp
„The trance from the beginning of time had been a monopoly of sibyls, oracles, faith healers and occultists. Mesmer broke this monopoly. He brought the trance within the bounds of science.“ A fascinating biography of the originator of Hypnotism, 100 years before Freud.
HUDSON,T J : „The Law of Psychic Phenomena“
Hardcover, (1893 -printing from 1900’s) 409 pages
$15.00 – Hardbound printing from 1995
This turn of the century treatise on suggestion, hypnotism and mesmerism went into over 40 printings. For the collector or anyone interested in early ideas about hypnotism as practiced in the original New Age movement of the late 19th century.
PODMORE,FRANK: „From Mesmer to Christian Science – A Short History of Mental Healing“
Hardbound, 1963 (1909), 306 pp
This history, written at the turn of the century by the son of a clergyman, begins with Mesmer and traces the progress of mental healing through Pursegur, Braid, Janet, Deleuze, up to Quimby and Mary Baker Eddy. A wonderful historical resource.
WALMSLEY,D.M. : „Anton Mesmer“
Hardbound w/dj, 1967, first edition, 192 pp
A beautiful copy of this Mesmer bio, printed in England. Nicely collectible.
MYERS,FREDERICK .W.H. : „Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily Death“
Hardbound w/torn DJ, 1961416 pp
An abridgement of the two-volume, 1360 page monumental study by the scholar who was born 15 years before Freud. Features a major section on hypnosis, as well as on Sensory Automatism, Motor Automatism, and Trance, Possession and Ecstasy
FLOURNOY,THEODORE : „From India to the Planet Mars – A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia“
Hardbound, 1963 (1900), 457 pp,
$19.50 – a trade paperback copy
One of the very first books of hypnotic past-life regression. Amazingly, this woman, regressed by Flournoy, a professor of Psychology in Geneva at the turn of the century, claimed to have lived past lives in India, France and on Mars! She presents entire maps of the Martian surface as well as detailed notes on the Martian language and alphabet. Flournoy is a skeptic, and does his best to explain the proceedings. The similarities of this book to mythological patterns inspired Carl Jung on his journey through archetypal patterns.
COOK,WM WESLEY M.D.: „Practical Lessons in Hypnotism“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1943 (1901) book, 272 pp
$29.50 – Hardbound with ragged dj,
One of the earliest American manuals on how to hypnotise and how to produce hypnotic phenomena, the Cook book has withstood the test of time. Includes sections on hypnotizing animals, anasthesia, criminal hypnotism, telepathy, as well as covering age-old methods of inducing hypnotism.
DARNTON,ROBERT : „Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1968, Harvard University Press, 218 pp
$19.50 – a trade paperback copy
This book attempts to examine the mentality of literate Frenchmen on the eve of the Revolution – to see the world as they saw it, before the Revolution threw it out of focus. These Frenchmen found that mesmerism offered a serious explanation of Nature, and they absorbed mesmerism so thoroughly that they made it a principal article in the legacy of attitudes they left for future generations. A great look at mesmerism as a social movement.
BADOUIN,CHARLES: „Suggestion and Autosuggestion“
Hardbound, 1922, 288 pp, damage to cover
Badouin studied under Coue at the New Nancy school. This school promoted the use of suggestion without hypnotic trance, in the same location where Bernheim and Liebault held court 40 years earlier.
DUCKWORTH, JOHN: „How to Use Auto-Suggestion Effectively“
Trade Paper, 1972, 178 pp
Now out-of-print, this book is a reprint of a 1922 book based on the work of Emile Coue. Many of the ideas presented in this book are still taught at respected hypnotherapy schools around the world today.
TATAR,MARIA: „Spellbound – Studies on Mesmerism and Literature“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1978, 293 pp, In Print for $45
A look at Mesmer and his views in context of 18th century thought. An exploration of Mesmer’s ideas and their influence on 19th century German, French and American writers.
SHILDER,PAUL: „The Nature of Hypnosis“
Hardbound, 204 pp, reprint of 1921 work
$10.00 – Paperback significant underlining
This book brings together two classic works from the Viennese professor: The Nature of Hypnosis (1921) and a Textbook of Hypnosis (1926) co-written with Otto Kauders. A contemporary of Moll and Forel, these books lay out the groundwork for the basics of hypnotherapy.
SAINT-GERMAIN,COMTE C. DE: „Practical Hypnotism“
Trade Paperback, reprint of 1901 book, 192 pp NEW COPY
An interesting book from the Frenchman which covers the history and practice of hypnosis. He quotes from the work of Braid, Charcot, Luys, Liebault, Wetterstrand, Bernhiem (sic), Moll, Decourmelles and others, and this bibliographic knowledge of his contemporaries makes this book worth a look.
FREUD AND BREUER „Studies on Hysteria“
Hardbound w.DJ, 1957 (1908), 335 pp
$17.50 Hardbound w/o DJ
$8.00 Paperback copy
This was the case that started it all – the case of Anna O. Freud wrote that in this case „I made use of hypnosis in another manner, apart from hypnotic suggestion.“ This ‚other manner‘ was the cathartic method, and is the basis for all hypnotic regress ion that followed. Eventually Freud abandoned hypnotism, but this work led to Freud’s ‚discovery‘ of the subconscious, and is still a milestone in the history of clinical hypnotism.
KLINE,MILTON : „Freud and Hypnosis“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1958, Julian Press, First Edition, 207 pp
$15.00 – hardbound lacking dust jacket, or a trade paperback copy
Most current hypnotherapy concepts (e.g. age regression, abreaction, catharsis, etc.) are rooted in the work and ideas of Freud. His work with hypnotism in the 19th century should be of interest to any serious modern day practitioner. This is the only book which I know of that focuses on Freud and Hypnosis.
YOUNG,L.E. : „The Science of Hypnotism“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1953 (1899), 226 pp
$17.50 – hardbound copy w/o DJ, different edition
$15.00 – pages yellow, binding a bit weak, very old hardbound copy
Originally published in 1899, this book was revised in the 40’s by Melvin Powers. It is especially strong in its reference to 19th century works, such as those by Bernheim, Liebault, Donato, Bremaud, Sextus, Tuckey, Luys, Burq, Charcot and others.
COOK,WM WESLEY M.D.: „Practical Lessons in Hypnotism“
Hardbound, 1927 revised edition of 1901 book, 272 pp
One of the earliest American manuals on how to hypnotise and how to produce hypnotic phenomena, the Cook book has withstood the test of time. Includes sections on hypnotizing animals, anasthesia, criminal hypnotism, telepathy, as well as covering age-old methods of inducing hypnotism. Includes a new section on ‚autosuggestion applied to selling.‘
BARRETT,SIR WILLIAM & BESTERMAN,THEODORE: „The Divining Rod – an Experimental and Psychological Investigation“
Hardbound W/Dj, 1968
Dowsing for water, minerals, or other hidden objects is one of the strangest activities on the borderline between magic and science. This book, originally published in 1926 by two distinguished authors in the field of parapsychology, was an attempt to apply rigorous scientific principles and controls to the ancient practice of dowsing.
CANNON,ALEXANDER: „Powers That Be – The Mayfair Lectures“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1967 (1935) 221 pp
These lectures include sections on Oriental Hypnotism, Occidental Hypnotism, Faith Healing, Black Magic, Telepathy, and ‚ How to Get what you Want‘. Discusses mystical practices of the East and West, including hypnosis.
INGALESE,RICHARD : „The History and Power of Mind“
Hardbound, 1967, 329 pp
Based on a series of lectures in 1902 about the Science of Mind. Of particular interest is the chapter about „Hypnotism, and how to Guard Against It.“
MACKAY, CHARLES LL.D: „Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds.“
Trade Paperback, 724 pp, reprint of 1841 work
As you can guess by the title, Mackay believes that hypnotic phenomena are all faked. Besides this uninformed view, written just as Braid was lifting hypnotism out of the dark ages, this book charts the theories of Paracelsus and the alchemists to the work of Mesmer and the early mesmerists, such as Father Hell and the Marquis de Puysegur, as well as unknowns such as Sir Kenelm Digby, Valentine Greatraks, D’Eslon, Dr. Haygarth, Benjamin Perkins, and Chevalier de Barbarin. One of the earliest mentions of speed hypnosis is mentioned here, performed by Abbe Faria . „He placed his patients in an arm-chair; told them to shut their eyes; and then in a loud commanding voice, pronounced the single word, „Sleep!“ This techniques is still used by stage hypnotists today.
PRINCE, WALTER FRANKLIN: „Noted Witnesses for Psychic Occurences“
Hardbound, 1963, 336 pp.
$12.50 – an Ex Lib copy
In this fascinating reprint from 1928, the reader is taken on a whirlwind tour of honorable citizens who were impartial witnesses to psychic occurences. Of particular note are James Esdaille, the stalward physician known for operating using only hypnotism as his anesthetic, who claims to have produced the hypnotic state via telepathy, and Dr. A.A. Liebeault, the teacher of Bernheim and thus the father of modern hypnotism, who claims that while in a hypnotic state, a woman announced a death using automatic writing which was occuring simultaneously 140 miles away.
Hardbound, 1917 (1893), Fifth Revised Edition, 304 pp
$5.00 – A Paperback copy
A correct Guide to the Science and How Subjects are influenced. An overview of hypnotism as it existed 100 years ago, loaded with illustrations, old techniques, and contributions from practitioners all over the world. Includes a section on hypnotism in Chicago at the turn of the century. A collectible copy of the first release of this edition, slight wear to covers.
A. VON SCHRENCK-NOTZING „The Use of Hypnosis in Psychopathia Sexualis“
Hardback, Julian Press 1956, 320 pp, Out of Print Reprint of a classic work from 1895
Written when Freud was just appearing on the horizon, Schrenck- Notzing’s book covers the use of hypnotic therapy for treatment of all kinds of sexual problems, including impotence, nymphomania, and various sexual perversions. One of the most sought after books in the history of hypnosis.
FOREL, AUGUST M.D.: „Hypnotism, or, Suggestion and Psychotherapy“
Translated from the 5th German edition
Hardback w/DJ, Allied Publications, 1949 (1906) 323 pages
$29.50 – a hardbound copy lacking a dust jacket
Forel was one of the European pioneers of turn-of-the- century hypnotism. A contemporary of Vogt and Moll, Professor Forel gives us a detailed scientific look at the mechanisms of hypnosis, including induction methods, hypnotic amnesia, hallucinations, suggestion, false memory, and the use of hypnosis for therapeutic purposes. Forel’s book may be regarded as a resevoir wherein all the knowledge of hypnosis prior to Freud is stored. A must for the serious student or collector.
BARTH, GEORGE: „The Mesmerists Manual“
Spiral bound, reproduction from 1851 manual, 104 pp
One of the earlier texts on hypnotism, this book contains historical and practical information on induction and utilization of the trance state. Includes some bizarre phenomena, such as Ecstasy, Thought Transference, Prophecy, and Cross Mesmerism. Very interesting, and very rare.
WYDENBRUCK, NORA : “ Doctor Mesmer“
Hardbound w/DJ, 1947, London, 206 pp.
$29.50 – a hardbound copy lacking a dust jacket
This slim book shows a cross section of eighteenth century life centering around the relationships between Mesmer, Mozart, and Maria Theresa Paradis, for whom Mozart wrote his first piano concerto in B Flat Major. The central theme is the study of Mesmer’s spectacular cure of Maria Paradis, and of the blind girl’s subsequent relapse and return to blindness and fame. Mesmer was force tto leave Vienna after this fiasco.
BROOKS, HARRY: „The Practice of Autosuggestion by the Method of Emile Coue“
Hardbound, 1922, 119 pp, Out of Print
This book, with an introduction by Coue, was the first popular exposition of Coue’s methods in the New Nancy school. Setting up in the same site as Bernheim forty years earlier, Coue used the concept of suggestion and autosuggestion but without hypnotic trance. A classic work in New Thought.
HOLLANDER, BERNARD : „Methods and Uses of Hypnosis and Self Hypnosis“
Trade Paperback, 1957 (1910), 189 pp
A reprint of the early work by the London M.D. originally entitled „Hypnotism and Suggestion in Daily Life, Education and Medical Practice“ when it was written in 1910.
DRESSER – „The Quimby Manuscripts“
Hardbound w/DJ, 440 pp
If you have never heard of Phineas Quimby, then this book might open your eyes. Quimby learned mesmerism as a form of healing. He healed Mary Baker Eddy, who later formed the Christian Science movement. Trace the line of thought from the mesmerist spirituals movement to today’s New Age beginning with Quimby.
WOLFE & ROSENTHAL – „Hypnotism Comes of Age“
Paperback, 1948, 272 pp
This book traces the development of hypnotism from Mesmer to its therapeutic use at the end of WW II. In depth section on the work of Lewis Wolberg written back when it was contemporary.
FLAMMONDE, PARIS : „The Mystic Healers“
Hardbound w/DJ, , 1974, 252 pp
The history of faith heeling, from Isis, Ezekil, Jesus and St. Paul to Mesmer, Perkins, Cayce, and others. A fascinating tail of the worlds greatest healers, including psychic surgery.
CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PUBLISHING SOCIETY „A Century of Christian Science Healing“
Hardbound, 1966, 256 pp
An anthology of clippings covering 100 years of spiritual healing in the Christian Science method.